What is a methodology?
There are two types of methodologies in the CDM context - baseline methodologies and monitoring methodologies.
Baseline methodologies are defined in the CDM Glossary of Terms as follows:
A methodology applied to establish a baseline methodology. The CDM rules and requirements prescribe the baseline approaches that can apply to CDM project activities and CPAs (CDM Glossary v.6).
In essence, a baseline methodology is the means to estimate the emissions that would have been created in the most plausible alternative scenario to the implementation of the project activity (called the baseline scenario).
Monitoring methodologies are defined in the CDM Glossary of Terms as follows:
The methodology used for monitoring a CDM project activity or CPA, which constitutes one part of a baseline and monitoring methodology. (CDM Glossary, v.6)
Therefore, a monitoring methodology is the means to calculate the actual emission reductions from the project, taking into account any emissions from sources within the project boundary.
A monitoring methodology sets out how project proponents should develop and implement a monitoring plan for a particular project type, in order to gather the data required to calculate emission reductions from the project.
Both the baseline methodology and the monitoring methodology must be specified in the project design document (PDD).
Applying multiple methodologies
Paragraph 6(f) of the Procedures for registration of a programme of activities as a single CDM project activity and issuance of certified emissions reductions for a programme of activities provides for the application of more than one approved methodology to each component project activity (CPA) as part of a Programme of Activities (PoA).
At the 3rd meeting of the Executive Board the "Standard for Application of Multiple CDM Methodologies for a Programme of Activities" was adopted (EB 62, Annex 4). This standard simplified the requirements for applying multiple methodologies within a PoA and replaced the Procedures for Approval of the Application of Multiple Methodologies to a Programme of Activities adopted at EB 47. This standard has since been included into the amalgamated "Standard for Demonstration of Additionality, Development of Eligibility Criteria and Application of Multiple Methodologies for Programme of Activities" adopted at EB 65.
According to the standard, the CME must list the various combinations of technologies/measures and/or approved methodologies that will be implemented in the PoA. The CME is responsible for defining the eligibility criteria for CPA inclusion, and sampling plans for each of the combinations separately in accordance with the "Standard for the development of eligibility criteria for CPA inclusion of a project activity as a CPA under the PoA". If a CPA uses technologies/measures from several methodologies, it shall be in compliance with all the eligibility criteria derived from the requirements of all the methodologies. These eligibility criteria shall be clearly identified in the validated PoA-DD.
In relation to an application of multiple small-scale CDM methodologies, a PoA is eligible if it is demonstrated that there are no cross effects between the technology and measures applied. Cross effects refers to the interactive effects between the technology(ies)/measures of a CPA. Cross effects are relevant as estimating emission reductions from each single technology/measure in an isolated manner ignoring cross effects may potentially result in over-estimation of the emission reductions from the PoA.
The Executive Board, at its 68th meeting approved the Guidelines for the Consideration of Interactive Effects for the Application of Multiple CDM Methodologies for a Programme of Activities, which provides guidance on accounting for and avoiding cross effects when applying different technology(ies)/measures within a single CPA of a PoA.
Where such cross effects do exist, the CME shall propose methods to account for such cross effects using the "Procedures for requests to the executive board for deviation from an approved methodology". A CME may also use the "Procedure for the submission and consideration of request for clarification on the application of approved small scale methodologies" to seek clarification on cross effects in the proposed combinations.
The following particular examples of multiple small-scale CDM methodologies are eligible:
a) The same combination of technologies/measures under the same combination of methodologies applied consistently in each and every CPA of a PoA;
b) A single methodology is consistently applied in each CPA of a PoA but using multiple technologies/measures;
c) A principle technology/measure is applied consistently in each CPA using multiple combinations of methodologies. For example, waste water treatment projects with different ways of utilizing recover methane.
c) Combinations of technologies/measures and methodologies vary across CPAs of a PoA, i.e. the policy or goal can only be realized through the use of multiple and disparate methodologies. CME must demonstrate that the implementation of the activities is integrated through the design of the programme (EB 65, Annex 3, paragraph 29).
For PoAs applying multiple large-scale methodologies, only combinations permitted in the methodologies can be applied without pre-approval. If not already permitted, CMEs may seek clarification by following the "Procedure for the submission and consideration of queries regarding the application of approved methodologies and methodological tools by designated operational entities to the Meth Panel". This approach should also be taken when applying multiple small-scale and large-scale methodologies in combination (EB 65, Annex 3, paragraph 32).
At the 47th meeting of the Executive Board, Procedures for Approval of the Application of Multiple Methodologies to a Programme of Activities were adopted (EB 47, Annex 31). The Procedures provide that:
When validating a PoA which seeks to apply a combination of methodologies, the DOE shall submit a request for approval of the application of multiple methodologies in accordance with this procedure prior to the submission of a request for registration (EB 47, Annex 31, paragraph 2).
A request for approval of the application of multiple methodologies must be submitted to the secretariat by the DOE, and will be considered at a meeting of the relevant Panel or Working Group:
The DOE shall submit a request for approval to the secretariat together with the latest version of the CDM-POA-DD and CDM-CPA-DD (EB 47, Annex 31, paragraph 3).
The Panel or Working Group will consider whether the applied combination of methodologies is sufficient to address all project emissions and leakages which may occur as a result of implementation of the CPA. If the combination is found to be sufficient, the request will be recommended for approval by the Board. If found not to be sufficient, the request will be rejected. The coordinating or managing entity may submit a request for new methodology or a revision to an existing methodology (EB47, Annex 31, paragraphs 6-7).
Certain combinations of methodologies can be applied in PoAs without each PoA specifically requesting the approval of the combination from the Board. These combinations are outlined in the General Guidelines to SSC CDM Methodologies (EB 62, Annex 21, paragraph 11).
Determination by the Executive Board
Upon the making of a recommendation, the secretariat will make the recommendation of the Panel or Working Group publicly available and will forward the recommendation to the Executive Board for its approval or rejection.