Temporary certified emission reduction (tCER)
Temporary certified emission reduction (tCER) is defined in 5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1:
"Temporary CER" or "tCER" is a CER issued to project participants in an afforestation or reforestation project activity under the CDM which, subject to the provisions of section K below, expires at the end of the commitment period following the one in which they are issued (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 1(g)).
tCERs therefore differ from long-term certified emisison reductions (lCERs) in that tCERs expire at the end of the commitment period subsequent to the one in which they were issued, while lCERs expire at the end of the crediting period for the project.
A tCER is equal to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (CDM Glossary of Terms, Version 03).
Project participants in afforestation and reforestation may choose whether to receive tCERs or lCERs for emission reductions attributable to the project (EB 15, Annex 9). Where project participants choose to tCERs, a request must be made to have a number of tCERs issued equal to net GHG removals since the start of the project activity:
Where project participants have chosen to issue tCERs to address non-permanence, a request to the Executive Board has to be made for issuance of tCERs equal to the verified amount of net anthropogenic GHG removals by sinks achieved by the A/R CDM project activity under the CDM since the start of the A/R CDM project activity (CDM Glossary of Terms, Version 03).
Since the CDM modalities and procedures apply to A/R and small-scale A/R project activities except as otherwise provided in 5/CMP.1 and 6/CMP.1, references in those modalities to CERs should be read as references to tCERs and lCERs, as appropriate, when interpreted in the context of such projects:
For the purposes of this annex, in the CDM modalities and procedures, contained in the annex to decision 17/CP.7, where it reads CER, it should instead read tCER and/or lCER(5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 2).
Using tCERs to meet commitments
Annex I Parties may use tCERs to meet emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but only in the commitment period in which the tCERs were issued:
A Party included in Annex I may use tCERs towards meeting its commitment for the commitment period for which they were issued (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 41).
tCERs expire at the end of the commitment period subsequent to the one in which they were issued and may not be carried over further. Once expired, the tCER may not be transferred:
Each tCER shall expire at the end of the commitment period subsequent to the commitment period for which it was issued... An expired tCER may not be further transferred (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 42).
tCERs may not be carried over to a subsequent commitment period (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 41).
The expiry date of the tCER is recorded as part of the serial number:
The expiry date shall be included as an additional element in its serial number (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 42).
When retired tCERs expire, they must be replaced by other Kyoto units:
A tCER that has been transferred to the retirement account or the tCER replacement account of a Party included in Annex I shall be replaced before its expiry date. To this end, for each such tCER, the concerned Party shall transfer one AAU, CER, ERU, RMU or tCER to the tCER replacement account of the current commitment period (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 44).
As this decision states, where expired tCERs are themselves replaced by tCERs (by transfer to the tCER replacement account), those replacement tCERs will also ultimately expire, and must therefore be replaced at the end of the subsequent commitment period.
National registries must contain a tCER replacement account for this purpose:
Each national registry shall include a tCER replacement account for each commitment period in order to cancel assigned amount units (AAUs), CERs, emission reduction units (ERUs), removal units (RMUs) and/or tCERs for the purposes of replacing tCERs prior to expiry (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 43).
Total acquisitions of tCERs and lCERs by Annex I Parties must not exceed 1% of base year emissions, times five:
Each Party included in Annex I shall ensure that its net acquisitions of tCERs and lCERs do not exceed the limits established for that Party as set out in paragraph 14 of the annex to decision 16/CMP.1 (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 51).
tCERs and lCERs must not be transferred to the cancellation accounts of Annex I Parties or the CDM registry:
tCERs and lCERs may not be transferred to cancellation accounts of Annex I Parties referred to in paragraph 21 (c) and (d) of the annex to decision 13/CMP.1 or, where excess CERs were issued, to the cancellation account of the CDM registry referred to in paragraph 3 (c) of appendix D to the annex to decision 17/CP.7 (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 52).
However, any tCERs and lCERs that expire while in the Executive Board's pending account in the CDM registry or a holding account must be cancelled:
Expired tCErs and lCERs held in holding accounts of registries, or the pending account of the CDM Registry, shall be transferred to a cancellation account (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 53).
The ITL must notify Parties of an upcoming obligation to replace tCERs or lCERs:
The transaction log shall, one month prior to the expiry of each tCER or lCER in a retirement or in a replacement account, notify the Party included in Annex I concerned that a replacement of the tCER or lCER has to occur in accordance with paragraphs 44 or 48 above (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 55).
Where tCERs and lCERs are not replaced in accordance with the rules, the ITL will forward this information to the secretariat as part of the review of compliance for that Party under Articl 8 of the Kyoto Protocol:
Where a Party included in Annex I does not replace tCERs or lCERs in accordance with paragraphs 44, 48, 49 and 50 above, the transaction log shall forward a record of non-replacement to the secretariat, for consideration as part of the review process for the relevant Party, under Article 8, to the Executive Board and to the Party concerned. The Executive Board shall make this information publicly available and include it in its reports to the COP/MOP (5/CMP.1, Annex, paragraph 56).