Quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments
Quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments for each country are inscribed in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol. They represent the overall emissions target for each country for the first commitment period, expressed as a percentage of the base year (1990). Most countries are required to achieve a target of less than 100% of 1990 emissions, with the exception of Australia, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine.
The obligation to take steps to achieve these commitments is contained in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, which states:
In the first quantified emission limitation and reduction commitment period, from 2008 to 2012, the assigned amount for each Party included in Annex I shall be equal to the percentage inscribed for it in Annex B of its aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A in 1990, or the base year or period determined in accordance with paragraph 5 above, multiplied by five (Article 3(7)).